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Urbanisation Pace in Tanzania: The Delivery of Water and Electricity in Selected Urbanised Cities

Received: 14 October 2019    Accepted: 27 November 2019    Published: 6 December 2019
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Abstract

The Tanzanian censuses for the period of 45 years, from 1967 to 2012, indicate a rapid increase of urban populations from 5.7 percent to 22.6 percent. The increase has created a massive urbanization pressure on social services including water and electricity. Ideally the institutional frameworks of the delivery of these services are expected to interact during planning, budgeting and implementation of those plans. This study aimed to answer the research question that ‘How are water and electricity services delivered in the context of urbanisation’? The study was conducted at Arusha, Mwanza and Dodoma City Councils which includes two State Owned Utilities (SOU) that is Water Supply and Sanitation Authorities (WSSAs) and Tanzania Electric Supply Company Limited (TANESCO) from each city. Purposive sampling was used to select the three cities and key informants from the SOUs and in the city councils. The study participants include: the City Executive Directors, Planning Officers and Urban Planners in the cities as well as the planning officers from the SOUs. Documentary review and interview data collection methods were used to collect data. Content analysis, narrative analysis and phenomenological analysis were used to analyse data collected from the documents and interviews. The findings indicate a slight relationship between the LGAs-cities and SOUs studied, particularly in the preparation of master plan but they do not cooperate in operational activities including planning and budgeting. There is no any formal forum for LGAs and SOUs to meet, discuss their plans and budget as well as implementation of those plans. This study recommends to have an institutional framework whereby the utilities delivering water and electricity meet with the LGAs in a formal forum to discuss the plans, budget and implementation of the same to avoid duplication of effort.

DOI 10.11648/j.ss.20190806.16
Published in Social Sciences (Volume 8, Issue 6, December 2019)
Page(s) 338-347
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Urbanisation, Water and Electricity Delivery, Institutional Framework, Institutional Linkage, Population Increase, Tanzania

References
[1] United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2019). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2018 Revision (ST/ESA/SER. A/420). New York: United Nations.
[2] Masika, R., & Baden, S. (1997). Infrastructure and poverty: a gender analysis. Sussex: Institute of Development Studies.
[3] Muzondi, L. (2014). Urbanization and service delivery planning: Analysis of water and sanitation management systems in the city of Harare, Zimbabwe. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5 (20), 2905.
[4] Dao, M. Q. (2012). Population and economic growth in developing countries. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 2 (1), 6.
[5] Bull-Kamanga, L., Diagne, K., Lavell, A., Leon, E., Lerise, F., MacGregor, H., & Satterthwaite, D. (2003). From everyday hazards to disasters: the accumulation of risk in urban areas. Environment and Urbanization, 15 (1), 193-204.
[6] Capps, K. A., Bentsen, C. N., & Ramírez, A. (2016). Poverty, urbanization, and environmental degradation: urban streams in the developing world. Freshwater Science, 35 (1), 429-435.
[7] Sakijege, T., Lupala, J., & Sheuya, S. (2012). Flooding, flood risks and coping strategies in urban informal residential areas: The case of Keko Machungwa, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Jàmbá: Journal of Disaster Risk Studies, 4 (1), 1-10.
[8] Van Vliet, W. (Ed.). (2001). Cities in a globalizing world: global report on human settlements 2001. Earthscan.
[9] Lourenço-Lindell, I. (2002). Walking the tight rope: Informal livelihoods and social networks in a West African city (Doctoral dissertation, Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis).
[10] Kombe, W. J., & Kreibich, V. (2000). Reconciling informal and formal land management: an agenda for improving tenure security and urban governance in poor countries. Habitat International, 24 (2), 231-240.
[11] Worrall, L., Colenbrander, S., Palmer, I., Makene, F., Mushi, D., Mwijage, J., Martine, M., and Godfrey, N. (2017) Better Urban Growth in Tanzania: Preliminary Exploration of the Opportunities and Challenges. Coalition for Urban Transitions, London and Washington, DC. Available at: http://newclimateeconomy.net/content/cities-working-papers.
[12] Muzzini, E., & Lindeboom, W. (2008). The Urban Transition in Tanzania: Building the Empirical Base for Policy Dialogue (166 p). Washington, DC: The World Bank.
[13] Msuya, S., Mosha, P., & Mtili, R. (2017). The Challenges of Development Control of Informal Settlements in Arusha City: A Case of Ngaranaro Ward. International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research, 32 (1), 166-172.
[14] Akyoo, A. M., Makoye, G. R., Kilima, F. T. M., Coles, C. F., Nombo, C., Mvena, Z. S. K., & Ngetti, M. (2016) Chain Governance in Urban Dairying in Tanzania: A Cross-Learning Study on Value Chain Development.
[15] Andrews, D., Sánchez, A. C., & Johansson, Å. (2011). Housing markets and structural policies in OECD countries.
[16] Philip, R., B., & P. Steen, (2011). Integrated urban water management in the city of the future: Module 1 Strategic planning, ICLEI, Freiburg.
[17] Swai, I. L., Anasel, M. G., & Masue, O. S. (2018). Designing and Managing Public-Private Partnership in the Water Sector in Big Cities of the Developing World. In Handbook of Research on Urban Governance and Management in the Developing World (pp. 101-117). IGI Global.
[18] Swai, I. L. (2016) Community Participation as a Strategy to Address Water Shortage: A Tale of Bigwa and Lukuyu Wards in Morogoro.
[19] UNICEF. (2012). UNICEF Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Annual Report 2012. UNICEF WASH Section, Programme Division, UNICEF New York.
[20] URT (2003) The National Energy Policy, Tanzania. Government Printer.
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  • APA Style

    Idda Lyatonga Swai, Mackfallen Giliadi Anasel. (2019). Urbanisation Pace in Tanzania: The Delivery of Water and Electricity in Selected Urbanised Cities. Social Sciences, 8(6), 338-347. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ss.20190806.16

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    ACS Style

    Idda Lyatonga Swai; Mackfallen Giliadi Anasel. Urbanisation Pace in Tanzania: The Delivery of Water and Electricity in Selected Urbanised Cities. Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(6), 338-347. doi: 10.11648/j.ss.20190806.16

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    AMA Style

    Idda Lyatonga Swai, Mackfallen Giliadi Anasel. Urbanisation Pace in Tanzania: The Delivery of Water and Electricity in Selected Urbanised Cities. Soc Sci. 2019;8(6):338-347. doi: 10.11648/j.ss.20190806.16

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  • @article{10.11648/j.ss.20190806.16,
      author = {Idda Lyatonga Swai and Mackfallen Giliadi Anasel},
      title = {Urbanisation Pace in Tanzania: The Delivery of Water and Electricity in Selected Urbanised Cities},
      journal = {Social Sciences},
      volume = {8},
      number = {6},
      pages = {338-347},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ss.20190806.16},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ss.20190806.16},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ss.20190806.16},
      abstract = {The Tanzanian censuses for the period of 45 years, from 1967 to 2012, indicate a rapid increase of urban populations from 5.7 percent to 22.6 percent. The increase has created a massive urbanization pressure on social services including water and electricity. Ideally the institutional frameworks of the delivery of these services are expected to interact during planning, budgeting and implementation of those plans. This study aimed to answer the research question that ‘How are water and electricity services delivered in the context of urbanisation’? The study was conducted at Arusha, Mwanza and Dodoma City Councils which includes two State Owned Utilities (SOU) that is Water Supply and Sanitation Authorities (WSSAs) and Tanzania Electric Supply Company Limited (TANESCO) from each city. Purposive sampling was used to select the three cities and key informants from the SOUs and in the city councils. The study participants include: the City Executive Directors, Planning Officers and Urban Planners in the cities as well as the planning officers from the SOUs. Documentary review and interview data collection methods were used to collect data. Content analysis, narrative analysis and phenomenological analysis were used to analyse data collected from the documents and interviews. The findings indicate a slight relationship between the LGAs-cities and SOUs studied, particularly in the preparation of master plan but they do not cooperate in operational activities including planning and budgeting. There is no any formal forum for LGAs and SOUs to meet, discuss their plans and budget as well as implementation of those plans. This study recommends to have an institutional framework whereby the utilities delivering water and electricity meet with the LGAs in a formal forum to discuss the plans, budget and implementation of the same to avoid duplication of effort.},
     year = {2019}
    }
    

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  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - Urbanisation Pace in Tanzania: The Delivery of Water and Electricity in Selected Urbanised Cities
    AU  - Idda Lyatonga Swai
    AU  - Mackfallen Giliadi Anasel
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    T2  - Social Sciences
    JF  - Social Sciences
    JO  - Social Sciences
    SP  - 338
    EP  - 347
    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2326-988X
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ss.20190806.16
    AB  - The Tanzanian censuses for the period of 45 years, from 1967 to 2012, indicate a rapid increase of urban populations from 5.7 percent to 22.6 percent. The increase has created a massive urbanization pressure on social services including water and electricity. Ideally the institutional frameworks of the delivery of these services are expected to interact during planning, budgeting and implementation of those plans. This study aimed to answer the research question that ‘How are water and electricity services delivered in the context of urbanisation’? The study was conducted at Arusha, Mwanza and Dodoma City Councils which includes two State Owned Utilities (SOU) that is Water Supply and Sanitation Authorities (WSSAs) and Tanzania Electric Supply Company Limited (TANESCO) from each city. Purposive sampling was used to select the three cities and key informants from the SOUs and in the city councils. The study participants include: the City Executive Directors, Planning Officers and Urban Planners in the cities as well as the planning officers from the SOUs. Documentary review and interview data collection methods were used to collect data. Content analysis, narrative analysis and phenomenological analysis were used to analyse data collected from the documents and interviews. The findings indicate a slight relationship between the LGAs-cities and SOUs studied, particularly in the preparation of master plan but they do not cooperate in operational activities including planning and budgeting. There is no any formal forum for LGAs and SOUs to meet, discuss their plans and budget as well as implementation of those plans. This study recommends to have an institutional framework whereby the utilities delivering water and electricity meet with the LGAs in a formal forum to discuss the plans, budget and implementation of the same to avoid duplication of effort.
    VL  - 8
    IS  - 6
    ER  - 

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Author Information
  • School of Public Administration and Management, Department of Local Government Management, Mzumbe University, Morogoro, Tanzania

  • School of Public Administration and Management, Department of Health Systems Management Mzumbe University, Morogoro, Tanzania

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