Social Sciences

Research Article | | Peer-Reviewed |

Household Vulnerability and Poverty in the Bikoro Territory in Democratic Republic of Congo: Analysis of the Macro and Microeconomic Shocks of the 2018 Ebola Epidemic

Received: Oct. 24, 2023    Accepted: Nov. 11, 2023    Published: Nov. 21, 2023
Views:       Downloads:

Share

Abstract

On May 8, 2018, the Democratic Republic of Congo officially declared the occurrence of the ninth episode of Ebola Virus Disease in the territory of Bikoro, Equateur province. This epidemic has caused enormous damage to the province's economy and also to the standard of living in households. The deterioration in the economic fabric has led to inflationary pressures, weakened the capacity to mobilize tax revenues and increased the potential risks to the viability of public finances at provincial level. Further more, it has seriously threatened food security and plunged many already vulnerable households into extreme poverty. Overall, the slowdown in economic activity in all sectors resulting from the combined effects of the fall in aggregate demand and the demobilization of factors of production will lead to: a fall in the overall supply of products, particularly agricultural products, with a consequent increase in food insecurity; a reduction in wage and non-wage household incomes and a worsening of poverty. Tax revenues have also fallen, worsening the public deficit and debt sustainability. The scarcity of basic products has fueled speculation on the market, leading to high price inflation and even the destabilization of the macroeconomic framework at provincial level. Material and monetary poverty, the sector of activity and high household size are the main determinants of poverty. The impact of the epidemic has affected agricultural production and, ultimately, household income. The reallocation of household expenditure is eloquent proof of vulnerability.

DOI 10.11648/j.ss.20231206.11
Published in Social Sciences ( Volume 12, Issue 6, December 2023 )
Page(s) 260-268
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Epidemic, Ebola, Poverty, Vulnerability, Incidences, Households, Market

References
[1] Analyse socio-environnementale d’espèces halieutiques menacées d’extinction sur le fleuve Congo et son hinterland dans la province de l’équateur (RDC)—ProQuest. (s. d.). Consulté 5 octobre 2023, à l’adresse https://www.proquest.com/openview/8992340869c96978a2240b5735a5c485/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=2031961
[2] Bruneau, J.-C. (2009). Les nouvelles provinces de la République Démocratique du Congo: Construction territoriale et ethnicités. L’Espace Politique. Revue en ligne de géographie politique et de géopolitique, 7, Article 7. https://doi.org/10.4000/espacepolitique.1296
[3] Pourtier, R. (2008). Reconstruire le territoire pour reconstruire l’État: La RDC à la croisée des chemins. Afrique contemporaine, 227 (3), 23-52. https://doi.org/10.3917/aCDFo.227.0023
[4] Izu, A., & Mulolo, B. (2017, janvier 8). Evaluation des Objectifs du Millénaire pour le Développement en RDC: Quelles leçons pour les Objectifs du Développement Durable? [MPRA Paper]. https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/80493/
[5] Payaud, M. A., Martinet, A.-C., & Géro Amoussouga, F. (2014). La contribution de la RSE aux objectifs d’un développement durable de l’ONU. Cadre d’analyse et propositions pour les pouvoirs publics des «pays les moins avancés». Revue française de gestion, 245 (8), 133-158.
[6] Maltais, S. (2019). La gestion résiliente des crises sanitaires dans les États fragiles: Étude de la crise d’Ebola en Guinée [Thesis, Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa]. https://doi.org/10.20381/ruor-24094
[7] Fasly, H., & Wakach, S. (2021). Impact de la crise du Coronavirus sur l’économie informelle et sur les dépenses de consommation des ménages au Maroc. Revue Internationale du Chercheur, 2 (1), Article 1. https://www.revuechercheur.com/index.php/home/article/view/139
[8] Koudjom, E., Adonkor, K., & Tsambou, A. D. (2022). EFFET ECONOMIQUE DE LA PANDEMIE COVID-19 SUR L’ESPERANCE DE VIE DANS LES PAYS DE LA COMMUNAUTE ECONOMIQUE DES ÉTATS DE L’AFRIQUE DE L’OUEST (CEDEAO). Annale des Sciences Economiques et de Gestion, 21 (2), Article 2. http://annalesumng.org/index.php/seg/article/view/724
[9] Bourrier, M. (2019). Dans les coulisses de la gestion de l’épidémie Ebola en Afrique de l’Ouest (2014-2016): L’ère de l’ «OMSF». Sciences sociales et santé, 37 (2), 39-66. https://doi.org/10.1684/sss.2019.0139
[10] Gasquet-Blanchard, C. (2017). L’épidémie d’Ebola de 2013-2016 en Afrique de l’Ouest: Analyse critique d’une crise avant tout sociale. Santé Publique, 29 (4), 453-464. https://doi.org/10.3917/spub.174.0453
[11] Fortin, A., Vroh Benie Bi, J., & Soulimane, A. (2017). Les enseignements de l’épidémie d’Ebola pour une meilleure préparation aux urgences. Santé Publique, 29 (4), 465-475. https://doi.org/10.3917/spub.174.0465
[12] Résilience des systèmes de santé: Réflexions sur la crise Ebola en Afrique de l’Ouest - Monde | SecoursWeb. (2014, décembre 5). https://reliefweb.int/report/world/r-silience-des-syst-mes-de-sant-r-flexions-sur-la-crise-ebola-en-afrique-de-l-ouest
[13] Kanbur, R. (2016). Biens publics mondiaux et institutions internationales: Quel avenir pour la Banque mondiale ? Revue d’économie du développement, 24 (3-4), 9-24. https://doi.org/10.3917/edd.303.0009
[14] Running Up That Hill? The Challenges of Industrialization in the East African Community | SpringerLink. (s. d.). Consulté 5 octobre 2023, à l’adresse https://link.springer.com/article/10.1057/s41301-016-0045-x
[15] Diop, A. M. (2016). Les politiques de développement élaborées par la Banque mondiale à l’intention des pays de l’hémisphère sud de 1980 à nos jours: Origines, variantes et implications. Africa Development, 41 (1), Article 1. https://doi.org/10.4314/ad.v41i1
[16] Ovadia, J. S. (2014). Local content and natural resource governance: The cases of Angola and Nigeria. The Extractive Industries and Society, 1 (2), 137-146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exis.2014.08.002
[17] RDC: Le Gouvernement déclare l’épidémie d’Ebola à Djera - Democratic Republic of the Congo | SecoursWeb. (2014, août 25). https://reliefweb.int/report/democratic-republic-congo/rdc-le-gouvernement-d-clare-l-pid-mie-d-ebola-djera
[18] Fribault, M. (2015). Ebola en Guinée: Violences historiques et régimes de doute. Anthropologie & Santé. Revue internationale francophone d’anthropologie de la santé, 11, Article 11. https://doi.org/10.4000/anthropologiesante.1761
[19] Loungou, S. (2015). L’épidémie d’Ebola en Afrique de l’Ouest. L’Espace Politique. Revue en ligne de géographie politique et de géopolitique, 26, Article 26. https://doi.org/10.4000/espacepolitique.3467
[20] Diakite, A. S. (2014). L’épidémie à virus Ébola en Guinée, ses conséquences sanitaires et socio-économiques. Bull Acad Natl Med, 198 (8), 1505-1514.
[21] United Nations Development Program, “Ebola Virus Disease”. Available from: https://iris.who.int/bitstream/handle/10665/272536/SITREP-EVD-DRC-20180514.pdf?ua=1. [Accessed 19 September 2023].
[22] National Institute of Statistics, “Estimated economic growth in 2018 based on realizations at the end of march”. Available from: https://ins-rdc.org/q_content/publications/ [Accessed 19 September 2023].
[23] United Nations Development Program, “Gender Equality Strategy 2018-2021”. Available from: https://www.undp.org/sites/g/files/zskgke326/files/migration/am/UNDP-Gender-Equality-Strategy-2018-2021.pdf. [Accessed 19 September 2023].
[24] National Institute of Statistics, “Results of the survey on employment, the informal sector and household consumption / 2012”. Available from: https://ins-rdc.org/sites/default/files/Rapport%20enquete%20123.pdf. [Accessed 19 September 2023].
Cite This Article
  • APA Style

    Kiniati, J. F., Mundala, J. O., Bokele, L. I., Masasi, D. M., Mabika, C. M. (2023). Household Vulnerability and Poverty in the Bikoro Territory in Democratic Republic of Congo: Analysis of the Macro and Microeconomic Shocks of the 2018 Ebola Epidemic. Social Sciences, 12(6), 260-268. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ss.20231206.11

    Copy | Download

    ACS Style

    Kiniati, J. F.; Mundala, J. O.; Bokele, L. I.; Masasi, D. M.; Mabika, C. M. Household Vulnerability and Poverty in the Bikoro Territory in Democratic Republic of Congo: Analysis of the Macro and Microeconomic Shocks of the 2018 Ebola Epidemic. Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(6), 260-268. doi: 10.11648/j.ss.20231206.11

    Copy | Download

    AMA Style

    Kiniati JF, Mundala JO, Bokele LI, Masasi DM, Mabika CM. Household Vulnerability and Poverty in the Bikoro Territory in Democratic Republic of Congo: Analysis of the Macro and Microeconomic Shocks of the 2018 Ebola Epidemic. Soc Sci. 2023;12(6):260-268. doi: 10.11648/j.ss.20231206.11

    Copy | Download

  • @article{10.11648/j.ss.20231206.11,
      author = {Joël Fumwakwau Kiniati and Joseph Oyaya Mundala and Leurby Ikina Bokele and Dada Mukwambanza Masasi and Crispin Mabika Mabika},
      title = {Household Vulnerability and Poverty in the Bikoro Territory in Democratic Republic of Congo: Analysis of the Macro and Microeconomic Shocks of the 2018 Ebola Epidemic},
      journal = {Social Sciences},
      volume = {12},
      number = {6},
      pages = {260-268},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ss.20231206.11},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ss.20231206.11},
      eprint = {https://download.sciencepg.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ss.20231206.11},
      abstract = {On May 8, 2018, the Democratic Republic of Congo officially declared the occurrence of the ninth episode of Ebola Virus Disease in the territory of Bikoro, Equateur province. This epidemic has caused enormous damage to the province's economy and also to the standard of living in households. The deterioration in the economic fabric has led to inflationary pressures, weakened the capacity to mobilize tax revenues and increased the potential risks to the viability of public finances at provincial level. Further more, it has seriously threatened food security and plunged many already vulnerable households into extreme poverty. Overall, the slowdown in economic activity in all sectors resulting from the combined effects of the fall in aggregate demand and the demobilization of factors of production will lead to: a fall in the overall supply of products, particularly agricultural products, with a consequent increase in food insecurity; a reduction in wage and non-wage household incomes and a worsening of poverty. Tax revenues have also fallen, worsening the public deficit and debt sustainability. The scarcity of basic products has fueled speculation on the market, leading to high price inflation and even the destabilization of the macroeconomic framework at provincial level. Material and monetary poverty, the sector of activity and high household size are the main determinants of poverty. The impact of the epidemic has affected agricultural production and, ultimately, household income. The reallocation of household expenditure is eloquent proof of vulnerability.
    },
     year = {2023}
    }
    

    Copy | Download

  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - Household Vulnerability and Poverty in the Bikoro Territory in Democratic Republic of Congo: Analysis of the Macro and Microeconomic Shocks of the 2018 Ebola Epidemic
    AU  - Joël Fumwakwau Kiniati
    AU  - Joseph Oyaya Mundala
    AU  - Leurby Ikina Bokele
    AU  - Dada Mukwambanza Masasi
    AU  - Crispin Mabika Mabika
    Y1  - 2023/11/21
    PY  - 2023
    N1  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ss.20231206.11
    DO  - 10.11648/j.ss.20231206.11
    T2  - Social Sciences
    JF  - Social Sciences
    JO  - Social Sciences
    SP  - 260
    EP  - 268
    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2326-988X
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ss.20231206.11
    AB  - On May 8, 2018, the Democratic Republic of Congo officially declared the occurrence of the ninth episode of Ebola Virus Disease in the territory of Bikoro, Equateur province. This epidemic has caused enormous damage to the province's economy and also to the standard of living in households. The deterioration in the economic fabric has led to inflationary pressures, weakened the capacity to mobilize tax revenues and increased the potential risks to the viability of public finances at provincial level. Further more, it has seriously threatened food security and plunged many already vulnerable households into extreme poverty. Overall, the slowdown in economic activity in all sectors resulting from the combined effects of the fall in aggregate demand and the demobilization of factors of production will lead to: a fall in the overall supply of products, particularly agricultural products, with a consequent increase in food insecurity; a reduction in wage and non-wage household incomes and a worsening of poverty. Tax revenues have also fallen, worsening the public deficit and debt sustainability. The scarcity of basic products has fueled speculation on the market, leading to high price inflation and even the destabilization of the macroeconomic framework at provincial level. Material and monetary poverty, the sector of activity and high household size are the main determinants of poverty. The impact of the epidemic has affected agricultural production and, ultimately, household income. The reallocation of household expenditure is eloquent proof of vulnerability.
    
    VL  - 12
    IS  - 6
    ER  - 

    Copy | Download

Author Information
  • Institute for Economic and Social Research, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; Kimpese Health Research Center, Kimpese, Democratic Republic of Congo

  • Management of Healthcare Organizations, Higher Institute of Medical Techniques, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

  • Institute for Economic and Social Research, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

  • Institute for Economic and Social Research, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

  • School of Population and Development Sciences, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

  • Section