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The Ubiquitous Violence: A Socio-anthropology of Incivility Between Pupils in a School Environment in the City of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

Received: 19 May 2021    Accepted: 15 June 2021    Published: 13 July 2021
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Abstract

Background: The Burkinabè School faces many cases of violence. Acts of violence between students or between students and supervisors are legion. In a few years, School has become more and more a privileged space for the violence of various kinds, thus compromising its mission of socialization and transmission of knowledge and social norms. The violence is maintained by "lace wars", the consequences of which are the reduction of "civilities" in the school environment. The students develop new forms of rivalry and alliances, and there is a rise in rivalries between gangs, which can turn into more or fewer fights with the use of weapons. This configuration of relationships between students feeds punitive expeditions between groups of students and/or schools. The spirit of self-justice took precedence over the use of the crisis management system existing in schools. The objective of this research is to understand the logic of incivility in schools, their manifestation, and actors' representations. To achieve the research objectives, we opted for an anthropological approach. The anthropological approach led us to immerse ourselves in school life in the city of Ouagadougou. This "proximity" with people experiencing the issue of violence made it possible to observe students' living together in several high schools in Ouagadougou. Interviews with student, victims and actors of violence, leaders of student groups, school officials, supplemented the observation. It emerges from this research that the school environment in the city of Ouagadougou is made up of ritualized transgressions, which take place during demonstrations and student strikes but also during the publication of school results. Violence manifests itself through racketeering. To protect themselves, the victims try to retaliate by resorting to clans. The clans become protective bodies and animators of violence in the school environment.

DOI 10.11648/j.ss.20211004.12
Published in Social Sciences (Volume 10, Issue 4, August 2021)
Page(s) 172-178
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Violence, School Environment, Intergroup Rivalries, Social Changes

References
[1] Ndiaye L., (2014), Culture, crime et violence, Paris, L’Harmattan.
[2] OUATTARA F., (2020), Éduquer, c’est humaniser. Dignité, intégrité, laïcité et violence, Paris, L’Harmattan.
[3] COSLIN P. G., (2015), «Violences et incivilités au collège», L'orientation scolaire et professionnelle URL: http://osp.revues.org/1060, consulté le 09 octobre 2015.
[4] CHARLOT B. & EMIN J-C., (1997), Violence à l’école: état des savoirs, Paris, Armand Colin.
[5] BARRÈRE A., (2002), «Un nouvel âge du désordre scolaire: les enseignants face aux incidents», Déviance et société 1/2002 (Vol. 26) 3-19.
[6] LOMPO J. D., 2009, «Les enjeux de la violence en éducation des recherches en Afrique », International journal of violence and school, 10 (version en français), p. 116-130.
[7] DEROUET J-L., 1989, «L’établissement scolaire comme entreprise composite», BOLTANSKY et THEVENOT Justesse et justice dans le travail, Cahiers du centre d’Études de l’Emploi, Paris, PUF, pp. 11-41.
[8] BIANCHINI P. et KORBEOGO G., 2008, «Le syndicalisme étudiant, des origines à nos jours: un acteur permanent dans l’évolution socio-politique du Burkina Faso», JHEA/RESA Vol. 6, Nos. 2&3, pp. 33–60.
[9] SORY I., 2012, «L’Université de Ouagadougou: territoire de la contestation et de la répression des étudiants», JHEA/RESA vol. 10, n°1, p. 171–194.
[10] BARRÈRE A., 2013, École et adolescence. Une approche sociologique, Bruxelles, De Boeck.
[11] DUBET F. & MARTUCCELLI D., 1996, À l’école: Sociologie de l’expérience scolaire, Paris, Seuil.
[12] DERIVOIS D., 2006, «Le trajet de la violence à l’école, un point de vue clinique» Revue de recherches en éducation, n°37, pp. 39-48.
[13] BARDOUT J-C., 1984, Guide du dirigeant d’association, Paris Seuil.
[14] LOMPO J. D., BARY H. F., HENRY P. E. et BOLY D., 2009, Étude sur les violences basées sur le genre en Milieu scolaire au Burkina Faso, MERSS/MEF, Ouagadougou.
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    Zakaria Soré. (2021). The Ubiquitous Violence: A Socio-anthropology of Incivility Between Pupils in a School Environment in the City of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). Social Sciences, 10(4), 172-178. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ss.20211004.12

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    Zakaria Soré. The Ubiquitous Violence: A Socio-anthropology of Incivility Between Pupils in a School Environment in the City of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(4), 172-178. doi: 10.11648/j.ss.20211004.12

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    AMA Style

    Zakaria Soré. The Ubiquitous Violence: A Socio-anthropology of Incivility Between Pupils in a School Environment in the City of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). Soc Sci. 2021;10(4):172-178. doi: 10.11648/j.ss.20211004.12

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  • @article{10.11648/j.ss.20211004.12,
      author = {Zakaria Soré},
      title = {The Ubiquitous Violence: A Socio-anthropology of Incivility Between Pupils in a School Environment in the City of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)},
      journal = {Social Sciences},
      volume = {10},
      number = {4},
      pages = {172-178},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ss.20211004.12},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ss.20211004.12},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ss.20211004.12},
      abstract = {Background: The Burkinabè School faces many cases of violence. Acts of violence between students or between students and supervisors are legion. In a few years, School has become more and more a privileged space for the violence of various kinds, thus compromising its mission of socialization and transmission of knowledge and social norms. The violence is maintained by "lace wars", the consequences of which are the reduction of "civilities" in the school environment. The students develop new forms of rivalry and alliances, and there is a rise in rivalries between gangs, which can turn into more or fewer fights with the use of weapons. This configuration of relationships between students feeds punitive expeditions between groups of students and/or schools. The spirit of self-justice took precedence over the use of the crisis management system existing in schools. The objective of this research is to understand the logic of incivility in schools, their manifestation, and actors' representations. To achieve the research objectives, we opted for an anthropological approach. The anthropological approach led us to immerse ourselves in school life in the city of Ouagadougou. This "proximity" with people experiencing the issue of violence made it possible to observe students' living together in several high schools in Ouagadougou. Interviews with student, victims and actors of violence, leaders of student groups, school officials, supplemented the observation. It emerges from this research that the school environment in the city of Ouagadougou is made up of ritualized transgressions, which take place during demonstrations and student strikes but also during the publication of school results. Violence manifests itself through racketeering. To protect themselves, the victims try to retaliate by resorting to clans. The clans become protective bodies and animators of violence in the school environment.},
     year = {2021}
    }
    

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  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - The Ubiquitous Violence: A Socio-anthropology of Incivility Between Pupils in a School Environment in the City of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)
    AU  - Zakaria Soré
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    AB  - Background: The Burkinabè School faces many cases of violence. Acts of violence between students or between students and supervisors are legion. In a few years, School has become more and more a privileged space for the violence of various kinds, thus compromising its mission of socialization and transmission of knowledge and social norms. The violence is maintained by "lace wars", the consequences of which are the reduction of "civilities" in the school environment. The students develop new forms of rivalry and alliances, and there is a rise in rivalries between gangs, which can turn into more or fewer fights with the use of weapons. This configuration of relationships between students feeds punitive expeditions between groups of students and/or schools. The spirit of self-justice took precedence over the use of the crisis management system existing in schools. The objective of this research is to understand the logic of incivility in schools, their manifestation, and actors' representations. To achieve the research objectives, we opted for an anthropological approach. The anthropological approach led us to immerse ourselves in school life in the city of Ouagadougou. This "proximity" with people experiencing the issue of violence made it possible to observe students' living together in several high schools in Ouagadougou. Interviews with student, victims and actors of violence, leaders of student groups, school officials, supplemented the observation. It emerges from this research that the school environment in the city of Ouagadougou is made up of ritualized transgressions, which take place during demonstrations and student strikes but also during the publication of school results. Violence manifests itself through racketeering. To protect themselves, the victims try to retaliate by resorting to clans. The clans become protective bodies and animators of violence in the school environment.
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Author Information
  • Sociology Department, University Joseph Ki-Zerbo, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

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